About Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia  is a monarchy in the Near East. It accounts for a large part of the Arabian Peninsula and is located in the southwest corner of Asia, being at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa.

“The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia” (Al-Mamlakah Al-ʿArabīyah As-Saʿūdīyah) was established by a royal decree from the state founder AbdulAziz bin AbdulRahman bin Faisal Al Saud starting from Thursday, September the 23rd 1932 and this date was announced to become the National Day.

The capital city is Riyadh.

The official language is Arabic. English is widely used in business.

Saudi Arabia is the birthplace of Islam, and most of its natives are adherents of the majority Sunni branch.



Saudi Arabia, about one-fourth the size of the United States, is spread over 2.15 mio square kilometers, occupying almost 80 percent of the Arabian Peninsula. It is surrounded by the Red Sea on the West, by Yemen and Oman on the South, the Arabian Gulf and the United Arab Emirates and Qatar on the East, and Jordan, Iraq and Kuwait on the North. Saudi Arabia’s Red Sea coastline stretches about 1,760 kilometers, while its Arabian Gulf coastline is roughly 560 kilometers long. 

Desert covers more than half the total area of Saudi Arabia. A narrow coastal plain runs through the Kingdom’s western coast while a range of mountains run parallel to the coastal plain along the Red Sea. Along the Arabian Gulf in the east is a low-lying region called Al-Hasa. The mountains in the west of the Kingdom are very rich in minerals with large deposits of limestone, gypsum and sand. The eastern region has the richest reservoirs of oil in the world.

Almost the entire Kingdom is arid, although there is rainfall in the north and along the mountain range to the west, especially in the far southwest, which receives the monsoon rains in summer. Sporadic rain can also occur elsewhere, sometimes very heavily, causing serious flooding, including in Riyadh, where the air and prevailing winds tend usually to be very dry.


The total Saudi population is 33.4 Million in 2018, with about 50% of them being under the age of 30. The current birthrate is 2.47 children per woman.
The life expectancy at birth is 74 years.


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Economic data (2017)

Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, based on purchasing power parity (PPP): USD 53,802 
Gross national debt as percentage of GDP: 5 %

National currency: Saudi riyal (SAR) / Rate of exchange: EUR 1 = SAR 4.2 (July 2019)